The immediate thoughts which sprung to mind when faced with the word ‘history’ were recollections of sitting in a high school classroom making notes on British monarchs. However, it is only after following the dictation of the National Curriculum, I found myself with a genuine interest in learning about history – only this time, it was about my own history. Like a lot of young people descended from immigrants, I found myself feeling increasingly alienated and confused regarding my identity – I felt unsure as to whether I could class myself as being ‘British’, I tried to define what ‘home’ was and realised that, whilst I could name the various monarchs in near perfect order, I knew very little about where I was from – Kashmir.

I had spent most of my teenage years as the only non-white member of my friendship group and, despite being raised in a multicultural area, I went to high school in a predominantly white town. I didn’t bring up culture or ethnicity simply because I attended the kind of school were slurs like ‘Paki’ were thrown around more often than footballs at break time. Being labelled as a ‘coconut’ by the Asian cliques and struggling to find anyone in my own friendship group that understood my struggles with coming to terms with my identity, I simply repressed any feelings of curiosity which stemmed from a desire of belonging.

It was less than a year ago, after moving out to university and meeting people of a similar background to myself, that I began to search for an answer. I did what most people tend to do; I rummaged through pages of google, read numerous articles and tried to keep myself awake whilst scrolling through a seemingly endless Wikipedia page on the history of Kashmir. I’m what’s referred to as a ‘third generation’ migrant, meaning that two previous generations of my family have lived in this country and I don’t have any immediate family members born in Kashmir to turn to for answers. The first and only time I visited Kashmir was in 2002 for my Grandfather’s funeral. Understandably, I don’t have many memories aside from my uncle trying to drive his car up the narrow road winding around the Kashmiri mountains.

Unbeknownst to me at the time, Kashmir was, and still is, a disputed territory nestled between Pakistan, India and China. The part that I was visiting was located in Pakistani administered ‘Azad’ Kashmir (‘Free Kashmir’), whilst the southern and southeastern parts of the region make up the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. A little research led me to find that, even before India and Pakistan gained independence from Britain in August 1947, Kashmir was hotly contested. Under the partition plan provided by the Indian Independence Act, Kashmir was free to accede to India or Pakistan. At the time, Kashmir had a predominantly Muslim population and Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler at the time, decided the state was to stay independent. Because of the Muslim majority, Pakistan, an Islamic republic, sought to claim Kashmir. Hari Singh countered this by asking India for military help and signing the ‘Instrument of Accession’ which made Kashmir officially part of India with some autonomous privileges. This resulted in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947 which was followed by numerous other wars in 1965 and, most recently, the 1999 war.

It felt odd to read about a conflict in a land so directly related to me whilst sat five thousand miles away. Delving deeper into the history of Kashmir led me to understand that Kashmiris on both sides are still, to this day, experiencing immense oppression. A documentary called Inshallah Kashmir, which can be found on YouTube, provides a rare insight into the life of Muslims living in Jammu and Kashmir. Ashvin Kumar, the creator of the documentary, describes it as a ‘series of counterpointed testimonies and the heartbreaking coming-of-age of ordinary people’. Admittedly, it was harrowing to watch, reduced me to tears on multiple occasions and stayed with me. However, it provided me with a much needed understanding of how a conflict which arose in 1947 still, to this very day, is claiming innocent lives and tearing families apart.

Interestingly, around the same time I watched the documentary, I came across a quote by the 19th century British historian Sir Walter Lawrence – “The valley is an emerald set in pearls; a land of lakes, clear streams, green turf, magnificent trees and mighty mountains where the air is cool, and the water sweet, where men are strong, and women vie with the soil in fruitfulness.” The renowned beauty of Kashmir, as recounted by Lawrence, harshly contrasted against the reality faced by those trapped in a land that appeared to stand frozen in a tension that predates them. I was left feeling grateful for my life in Britain whilst I also grieved for the land my ancestors left behind and my fellow Kashmiris on the other side of the border.

Trying to make sense of the information I had gathered, I discovered that, like my own family, sixty to seventy percent of ‘British Pakistanis’ in England have origins in Azad Kashmir. I realised that my identity conflict can’t be unique – that this exact dilemma must be faced by many other children of immigrants who are unsure of where they belong. I reached out to my homeland in a bid to make sense of my fragmented identity with the hope of finding where I belong. However, I found that Kashmir, like myself, is a fragmented land enduring an ongoing and persistent conflict rooted in differences of identity, religion, language and culture. Ultimately, this journey of self discovery, through learning about the history of my homeland, left me feeling a responsibility to understand Kashmir and to ensure that I remain in touch with my Kashmiri identity. Which is difficult for Kashmiris who often get told they’re either Pakistani or Indian. In fact, recently an Indian coworker told me that there’s no such thing as a ‘Kashmiri’. Ultimately, all identities are relational – only making sense when you compare it to something else, but one thing I know for sure is that cultural history, whilst important in forming part of my identity, doesn’t define me and also stems from people, not from a piece of land divided by an arbitrary line drawn in the war rooms of military generals.


Comments not related to this post will be deleted accordingly including all comments that are ostensibly propagandistic or divisive and which seek to create animosity between communities. Please extend courtesy and respect to those whose viewpoints you may not necessarily agree with. The Portmir Foundation seeks to create dialogue between members of the British-Pakistani and Azad Jammu & Kashmir communities, Gilgit Baltistan, Indian-administered-Kashmir, and their wider societies.

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  1. I’ve read your post. It gives us a good insight into how you came to this fork in the road, and why you’re contemplating issues of identity. I really enjoyed reading it.

    Not fitting in or having an ‘identity’ imposed on you because of some ‘minority’ or ‘outside’ status given the peers you were associating with, has lead you to ask wider questions about your background. Many like you, as third generation ‘migrants’, I note you didn’t say ‘Briton’, would concur with your insight about how we have all become alienated and confused. It seems we’ve been unable to shrug off our immigrant roots given the propensity of ‘white society’ (a nebulous concept) to remind us of our ‘foreignness’ – “ah, but where are you really from?” This statement is loaded even as the person asking the question seems to think it is perfectly reasonable to ask such a question. It doesn’t make the person a racist, or lacking in benign intentions, it just proves how ingrained such attitudes are – people are perceived “foreign” because of the legacy of race myths.

    For us, it opens up a world of subtle prejudice, as I doubt a ‘white’ person (however we imagine ‘whiteness’), who like you, a third generation ‘Briton’, would ever be asked this question. And I don’t think ‘London’ would appease such curiosity either. So you start to probe a ‘past’ that you’re connected to even as you have no direct experience of it, and I guess this is how many of us are initiated into the sorts of questions we start to ask ourselves.

    We need more youngsters from the community to write about their own experiences. There are no right or wrong answers, just honest ones. Please submit your submissions to

    • Pakistan is something else. All these deluded British Pakistanis that want to fly Pakistani flags even though they are from Azad Jammu Kashmir are something else. I will never allow myself to be a victim to propaganda ever again.

  2. Not everyone from Pakistan is deluded Myra? If you dont want to fly a Pakistani flag, you have that right. Good for you! But if someone else from Pakistan, from Mirpur, who feels Pakistani wants to fly the Pakistani flag in Britain on Pakistan’s independence day, they also have that right. You do not have the right to call them deluded!

  3. Isn’t the point of this website to give Pakistanis or Kashmiri, however you want to identify, from Azad Kashmir a platform to express their views, opinions, experiences, without censure or following herd-mentality? So stop insulting your fellow citizens for feeling or wanting to be part of Pakistan because that’s how they feel. I understand why you feel the way you feel, and I appreciate your personal experiences behind anti-Mirpuri comments by fellow British Pakistanis. I concede the point, these “haters” are from Britain, and no where else. You need to put this down to moral failings on the part of the individuals or groups who behave like that. They also attack other ethnic communities in Pakistan, Kashmiris from your part of the world are not the only victims of such crass caricatures. Urdu speakers make fun of Panjabi speakers and belittle their language, Pathans were routinely attacked by other communities for being “primitive” and “socially backwards”, Urdu speakers have been attacked for being “cowardly” and “fake”, Patwari speakers have been attacked for being “Pindus”. There are slurs for almost every community in Pakistan. Everyone motivated by prejudice or with a-superiority complex or even ‘personal anxieties’, behaves like this.

    The thing is we all know the slurs are not true!

    However, I need to point out, as it has already been pointed out by the writers here who seem to be opposed to political and social injustice, and are not necessarily against the idea of Pakistan, a lot of Mirpuris ARE happy with the idea of Pakistan, as are other regional communities in Azad Kashmir. You can’t blame Pakistan because of the political elite who run Pakistan or the hatred of some British-Pakistanis against different ethnic communities. Racists and bigots exist in all societies and not just merely in Pakistan.

    • Apologies Noreen, but how are we from Pakistan? I respect you’re moral compass but you are completely wrong in your observations. AJK has its own flag, doesn’t it?

      We are from Azad Jammu Kashmir. Pakistan’s official position is that Azad Jammu Kashmir is not part of Pakistan. It has an ambiguous status, so-called free territory completely controlled by Islamabad, and because of this ambiguous status the people are being exploited.

      Anyone who disagrees with this position is intimidated, this is how Pakistan controls dissent. They harass the activists of AJK every day. We’re not stupid. People from Azad Kashmir want independence from both India and Pakistan. We want our own country.

      These are the facts. Myra is not wrong. She is absolutely correct, 100% correct!

  4. Amnesty International Report on Human Rights Violations in Pakistan.

    Human rights defenders

    Bloggers, journalists, lawyers, activists and other human rights defenders faced harassment, intimidation, threats, violence and enforced disappearance. The five bloggers who were forcibly disappeared and activists who campaigned for their release were subject to a smear campaign accusing them of being “blasphemers”, “anti-Pakistan”, “anti-Army” and “anti-Islam”. Human rights defenders criticized on television and on social media faced death threats, forcing some to self-censor and to seek protection for their physical safety.”

    This is how they treat people in Pakistan, what about those in Azad Jammu Kashmir?

    Whenever the people of AJK speak up for their rights, people slur them for simply saying Azad Kashmir is not Free it is occupied! Where’s the justice for our people Noreen?

  5. Taiba,
    AJK was designed at that time in 1947 as a Government in exile for J&K and it’s purpose was to advocate for freedom of J&K followed by what in 1947 was believed to be the majority view that it would then aceede to Pakistan.

    Now moving forward over 70 years it is just a relic to a bygone era.

    The de facto position is that Jammu and Frontier provinces are pretty happy with the status quo and only Kashmir province is unhappy. Bearing in mind that none of Kashmir province is in AJK we should think what is the best solution for us.

    I think that we need to really think carefully about what the vast majority of people from Mirpur, Ponch and MZD want. I do not think that they want an independent state as is being advocated by some diehards like I guess yourself. I think the silent majority is happy as Pakistanis.

    It is to my mind like the Islamists, 99% of Pakistanis do not support them but they are busy demanding an Islamic state and shariah while the rest of us know that it is both undesirable and impossible as there is not one type of muslim and not one type of islamic society and there never has been one.

    Similarly protagonists of Pakistan and India are strong in Jammu on both sides and by adding another dimension it is only making the matter more complex and protracted.

    Lets first at least carry out extensive research to see who Mirpuris actually support. I previously posted my view that Mirpuris have never held a rally against Pakistan and always celebrate 14.08. and support Pakistani cricket with zeal and also call themselves Pakistanis. I have been to Pakistan and in Mirpur /Dadyal I never felt there was any tension, unease or greiviance against Pakistan beyond the usual complaints that all Pakistanis make of corruption etc.
    I think the real anti Pakistani position of Mirpuris in the Uk is based to a great extent on their experience of being looked down upon by other Pakistanis. This is a reality but should be cut off our nose to spite our face. Pakistan is as much if not more ours than some indian immigrants (muhajirs) and others. Why should we run away and sulk. This is in my opinion not the best solution as we do not even know any Kashmiris and have never met them and neither had our ancestors. We cannot understand their language and have less cultural, genetic, social and lingusitic affiliation with them then our neighbours in Punjab Pakistan.
    My point is therefore lets look at this point seriously and then act, no point acting without carrying out research. BTW I am sure if you do an anti Pakistan rally for AJK Human Rights no one except a few indians will turn up.

    • Jatt Punyal,
      You said ” I do not think (referring to AJK people – Mirpur, Poonch, MZD) want an independent state as is being advocated by some diehards like I guess yourself”.

      How do you know that for real?

      Are you absolutely sure that Azad Kashmiris don’t want what was promised to them by Pakistan, an independent Jammu & Kashmir State in 1947? Wasn’t it for the people of Azad Jammu Kashmir to decide their own future? This is what Pakistan argues at the United Nations and at every international summit on Kashmir? Why the distorted history? Why as a Riyasati of Jammu Kashmir (state subject), or someone with roots in AJK, are you denying Pakistan’s official position on Jammu Kashmir? That’s my first question to you.

      As for the idea that people of Azad Jammu Kashmir want to be part of Pakistan, this was answered by Tanvir Hussain who is presently living in AJK and fighting for the rights of AJK. He said, “Yes, re-unification is what we want – subject to the other divided parts wanting the same” – so it’s conditional on a power-sharing arrangement between consenting CITIZENS of this State – i.e., we believe in the democratic franchise in AJK; is Pakistan offering us this right as it exploits AJK’d resources?. Please answer this question?

      Tanvir carried on to say, “At least in terms of AJK I can assure you that I have conducted perhaps the most extensive public opinion survey ever conducted anywhere in the world (in proportion to the population). Here’s a link to the summary:

      He carried on, “finally, in terms of internal fault lines – they are not as deep as found in many other functioning democratic nation-states – and any issues that do exist have something to do with the occupying structure which relies on ‘divide and rule’. Thus, freedom delivers its own cures.”

      Now you prove that the people of AJK don’t want independence from Pakistan – a decision that only the AJK people can take, not the Pakistani State, its army or security agencies? People like you, perhaps some of the bloggers here are a minority in your opinions, not the majority, but even they recognise AJK is dysfunctional and want whats best for the ordinary people of AJK, and Jammu Kashmir.

      How do you know what you want for AJK is in the best interests of AJK? It’s easy siding with Pakistan, because that’s the status quo, and the elite do not want to upset this imbalance between Pakistan and AJK.

      Whose going to fight for the interests of the people of AJK?

      Now let me come to Tanvir’s point of “divide and rule”.

      In previous posts, you were dividing Mirpuris from Poonchies – you were accusing Poonchies of hating Mirpuris, even though they belong to the same ethnic space as us. And yet you accept this hate from other Pakistanis towards Mirpuris in the UK. Why the inconsistency? And now you’re dividing AJK from the rest of Indian-Kashmir, saying Kashmir is not even in AJK? Where exactly is Muzaffarabad, the old Tehsils of Muzaffarabad, Uri, Karnah? These areas have always been in Kashmir Subah – thus our State is called Jammu & Kashmir which includes Gilgit Baltistan! But even though the Muzaffarabadis are our people ethnically speaking, we are speaking about geo-administrative Units not ethnic people. Muzaffarabad is in Kashmir Province, just as Mirpur is in Jammu Province, but Mirpuris are not Dogras, Dogras are from a different ethnic space to us – we come from the Pahari-Patwari Ilaqah of Jammu Kashmir State.

      We shouldn’t deliberately conflate ethnic spaces with provinces and districts to confuse people as the history is very clear and the maps exist for all to see.

      Why are you confusing all these political realities with irrelevant ethnic facts?

      I will accept that ethnic Kashmiris are different from us in all of AJK for the point of your argument (which they’re not genetically speaking), BUT let’s follow your argument to its logical conclusion for Pakistan too. Pashtuns should separate from Panjabis. Baloch should separate from Sindh. Pakistani Panjabis should reunite with Indian Panjabis, and the Panjab should separate from both India and Pakistan so we can be consistent in our reasoning.

      Once this has been done, we will then consider merging our AJK with the rest of the Patwar and the Hazarah regions of Khyber Pakhtunkwa. The same logic could be applied to India.

      Until then, we are within our rights to demand that Pakistan honour its commitments to UN resolutions, and remove its troops from our lands as it promised to do requesting extra time. It’s been 70 years!

      Finally to find out what people actually think in AJK, can Pakistan please remove its troops from AJK, so we can have this vote so we can find out what the people of AJK want, in the same way, Pakistan demands India remove its troops from Indian OCCUPIED Kashmir?

      Until then, the situation in Azad Jammu Kashmir is unjust and the people are being exploited as our own people sit on the fence.

  6. Jat Punyal,
    Also in relation to the constant misinformation on the diversity of Jammu & Kashmir – you spoke of different genetics which is “race science” that has been debunked time after time even on this website, I have copied and pasted an article that appeared on the Greater Kashmir website. These people live in your real “Kashmir” – so it’s interesting to learn how they view themselves. Not surprising, they all want an independent Jammu & Kashmir State that includes every inch of AJK and Gilgit Baltistan – proud of the State’s Diversity.

    The wider POINT being, ethnic Kashmiris are not genetically different from neighbouring peoples. This is “divide and rule” tactics, and it amounts to propaganda. You may not be doing this deliberately, but it’s a source of misinformation and now more and more people are finding such ideas crass and offensive as they want to know the identities of the people who keep spreading such ideas. It’s like saying the earth is flat and not spherical – it’s just profound ignorance!

    Genetics of South Asia

    Genetically speaking, South Asia extends beyond the borders of India and Pakistan

    Worldwide, much research is being done on the genetics of various people inhabiting the planet. Unlike the animal kingdom where different species of the same genus differ genetically to the extent that they can no longer interbreed all humans are the same species, Homo sapiens sapiens, the only extant species of the genus Homo. Current theory has it that anatomically modern humans (AMH) originated about 200,000 years ago in the region of the Omo river in South West Ethiopia from where they spread out in all directions to populate the globe. In the course of their wanderings over tens of thousands of years different sets of genes mutated in different migrating populations in a process called single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP or Snip). Some snips were beneficial and were passed on to offspring, others were harmful and their carriers died out. Particular groups of humans thus began to carry particular sets of mutations. These snips are the markers scientists use to identify different races.

    National Geographic magazine was the first to popularize genetic testing. In a famous project it undertook to study the genetic diversity of people inhabiting the Astoria section of Queens in New York. 193 volunteers from different parts of the world now living in Astoria took part in the study. The study discovered that between them they carried markers for virtually all the population groups on earth. Other more academic projects have been undertaken abroad to study gene variations in human populations. For some reason the Government of India has declined to join them or permit their testing DNA of Indians. It is conducting its own study but is coy about revealing the findings. There are other projects such as ‘Hapmap’ and the Human Genome Diversity Project run by Stanford University engaged in the business of charting gene variations. Ajmal Zachariah, a Pakistani at Georgia Tech University runs a project called the Harappa Ancestry Project. It can be accessed at The latest study to hit the headlines is the one conducted by Harvard Medical School and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad.

    It seems that modern Indians and Pakistani including remote tribals have two major components to their DNA, Ancestral South Indian (ASI) and Ancestral North Indian (ANI). ANI seems to be associated with West Asia, Europe and the Caucasus region, and ASI with people on the Andaman Islands. The Harvard study analyzed DNA from 371 people belonging to 73 groups from all over the subcontinent and found that mixing of ANI and ASI started about 4000 to 5000 years ago and stopped 2000 years ago. Coincidentally it was about 2000 years ago that the strict caste codes of the Manusmriti prohibiting marriage outside caste took hold.

    The Harappa project collects DNA data from South Asians in the US but also from other communities. It is then run through a software programme called Admixture. Admixture shows up the different component of an individual’s DNA in designated clusters. The Harappa project while retaining ASI as it is broke ANI further into three groups, Baluch, Caucasian and North East European. The Admixture software displays the ASI, Baloch, Caucasian and NE European components of the individual’s genetic code. One of the surprising outcomes of the project is the wide dispersal of ASI. It is found as far West as Iran and in Tajikistan to the North. In Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India it forms a substantial portion of inheritance. Pathans have about 22% ASI on average, Punjabis between 25% and 35% depending upon community; Kashmiri DNA also comprises over 30% ASI. All South Asians including the Pathans have a substantial component of Baloch DNA. It varies between 35% and 45% for North Indians including Kashmiris and Punjabis. The Caucasian and North Eastern European strands vary between 20% and 28% for Punjabis, and is highest among Haryana Jats, higher even than Brahmins of Punjab and Kashmir. Overall, North Indians have about 70% ANI. The figures vary slightly between communities.

    It would seem then that genetically speaking, South Asia extends beyond the borders of India and Pakistan. The Pakhtun region of Afghanistan is certainly South Asian because the Pakhtun communities share 85% of their DNA with Punjabis and nearly 90% with Jats. Even Tajiks have a hefty amount of ANI-Just below 10% of ASI, but 32% of Baloch. Iranians surprisingly also show 4% ASI and 25% Baloch; they carry around 40% Caucasian genes but a lower North East European percentage than Pathans and Punjabis.

    A gene cluster named Baloch or ASI does not mean that it originated in Balochistan or South India, only that it is the most frequently occurring group in the population of that area; it does not say anything about the geographical origin of the mutation. We all carry the same set of genes that make us human; it is the tiny proportion of mutated genes that tells us about the wanderings and interbreeding of our ancestors that created communities with their particular admixtures. Who is to say why ASI is found as far north as Byelorussia and Azerbaijan?

    India is a strange land where strange things happen. It is a pity that the Central Government has not been responsive to international gene typing projects. Genome projects at foreign research centres have had great difficulty collecting samples from India. What could be the reason for this reluctance considering that India is ever willing to jump aboard international scientific cooperation experiments? Could there be a political motive?
    Indian diversity, which all Indians know about and happily live with, rubs uncomfortable shoulders with the official narrative of India. This originated in the imagination of Jawaharlal Nehru when he “discovered” a mystical unity about India stretching back into remote time. After independence the narrative became official. It may be seen in those nice ads on TV that have famous artists singing ‘mile sur mera tumhara’ in various styles and languages conveying a unity in India’s diversity. It is a very nice video, sensitively done, but somewhat forced. Sometimes this force manifests in pseudo science such as the ‘Out of India’ theory (OIT) posited by Hindutva nationalism to counter the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT). OIT says that India is the original homeland of the Aryan race from which it migrated to populate central Asia and Europe. Historians now accept that there was no Aryan invasion, and anthropologists are agreed that there never was an Aryan race, so the whole controversy is moot. It is agreed generally that there were migrations of populations from Central and West Asia into India starting in the mists of prehistory and continuing well into the era of recorded history. Arya only meant noble or high born.

    Is it likely that the objection to joining foreign based genome projects is based on the fear that evidence of the genetic diversity of India will undermine the political narrative, particularly that of the BJP, that Indians far from being of ‘Indian’ stock are actually a genetically diverse bunch united more by culture and civilization than by genes.

    These genetic studies also affect the unofficial narrative of Pakistan. If Pakistanis have the same bloodlines as those found in North India then all that talk of being descended from Arabs and Iranians or central Asian conquerors goes out of the window. The Pathan claim of being the offspring of a lost tribe of Israel, or of being descended from some mythological Arab ancestor must also be discarded because their DNA shows no Bedouin lines, or anything in common with Ashkenazi Jews. The Pakistani lawyer and politician Aitzaz Ahsan, following upon Nehru, wrote about his own discovery of Pakistan in a book called The Indus Saga, a rather contrived post colonial narrative much inferior to the original product.

    It is often asked how genes can be similar if appearances differ so markedly. Biologists distinguish between genotype, an organism’s full genetic inheritance, and the phenotype, the physical appearance which is a result of how genes express themselves. Even an identical genetic inheritance can produce slight differences in phenotype. An individual’s genotype is the genetic code they carry in their cells. Their phenotype is the visible, expressed trait, such as hair or skin colour. The phenotype depends upon the genotype but can also be influenced by environmental factors.

    Migrations continue everywhere, especially in the new world and Australia. Slowly but surely the profile of populations is changing except perhaps in countries such as Japan and Saudi Arabia. The US must be world’s largest laboratory of human genetics at this time considering its massive intake of migrants from all over the world. Endogamous caste marriages prevented a homogenization of Indian populations, but that is not likely in the US. Already as the National Geographic experiment shows, all human gene mutations can be found in one small borough of New York. It is only a matter of time before a new admixture comes to dominate the United States. In a couple of thousand years Americans will be a different lot from what they are now.


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